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The Supreme Court ruled that prayer organized by the school was not "voluntary" since students were coerced or publicly embarrassed if they did not follow along. Nevertheless, the conservatives continued to call for "voluntary" school prayer and repeatedly attacked the Supreme Court on this issue and on other issues; especially abortion. The evangelicals had long been avid supporters of the public schools.

Now they had to reconsider their place in both schools and society as a whole.

They concluded with surprising unanimity that those school decisions had done more than forced evangelical belief out of America's public schools; the decisions had pushed evangelicals themselves out of America's mainstream culture. Alienated, they moved into the Religious Right and by were avid supporters of Ronald Reagan [84] [85] [86].

President Ronald Reagan set the conservative standard in the s; in the s, the Republican leaders typically claim fealty to it.

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For example, most of the Republican candidates in "claimed to be standard bearers of Reagan's ideological legacy. The s and beyond became known as the " Reagan Era. Other modern conservative beliefs include skepticism of the theory of man-made global warming and opposition towards government action to combat it, which conservatives contend would do severe economic damage and ultimately more harm than good even if one accepts the premise that human activity is contributing to climate change.

Most conservatives support the death penalty for particularly egregious crimes. The "law and order" issue was a major factor weakening liberalism in the s. Bush stressed cutting taxes and minimizing regulation of industry and banking, while increasing regulation of education. Although, the study does show some distinction between the concentration of moderates and conservatives or liberals between the Republican and Democratic parties.

Conservatism appears to be growing stronger at the state level. The trend is most pronounced among the "least well-off, least educated, most blue collar, most economically hard-hit states.

Conservatives generally believe that government action is not the solution to problems such as poverty and inequality. Many believe that government programs that seek to provide services and opportunities for the poor actually encourage dependence and reduce self-reliance.

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Most conservatives oppose affirmative action policies, that is, policies in employment, education, and other areas that give special advantages to people who belong to groups that have been historically discriminated against. Conservatives believe that the government should not give special benefits to people on the basis of group identity and oppose it as " reverse discrimination ". Conservatives typically hold that the government should play a smaller role in regulating business and managing the economy. They typically oppose high tax rates and programs to redistribute income to assist the poor.

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Such efforts, they argue, do not properly reward people who have earned their money through hard work. However, conservatives usually place a strong emphasis on the role of private voluntary charitable organizations especially faith-based charities in helping the poor. On social issues, many religious conservatives oppose changes in traditional moral standards regarding sexuality and gender roles.

They oppose abortion, same-sex marriage, and anti-discrimination laws against homosexuals. Business-oriented conservatives oppose the social conservatives if state laws limiting gay rights threaten to hurt business. The National Review reported in that, "as evangelical forces have become less unified Historian Peter N. Stearns finds a polarization since the s between conservatives who believe that the humanities express eternal truths that should be taught, and those who think that the humanities curriculum should be tailored to demonstrate diversity.

Conservatives typically favor a "melting pot" model of assimilation into common English-speaking American culture, as opposed to a "salad bowl" approach that lends legitimacy to many different cultures. In the United States, the Republican Party has been the party of conservatism since the s, although there was a strong Eastern liberal wing. Since , the conservatives largely took control. Meanwhile, the conservative wing of the Democratic Party , based in the South and strongly opposed to Civil Rights , grew weaker. The most dramatic realignment took place within the White South, which moved from 3—1 Democratic to 3—1 Republican between and In addition, some American libertarians, in the Libertarian Party and even some in the Republican Party, see themselves as conservative, even though they advocate significant economic and social changes—for instance, further dismantling the welfare system or liberalizing drug policy.

They see these as conservative policies because they conform to the spirit of individual liberty that they consider to be a traditional American value. However, many libertarian think-tanks such as the Cato Institute , and libertarian intellectuals such as David Boaz describe libertarianism as being "socially liberal and fiscally conservative. On the other hand, some conservatives tend to oppose free-market trade policies and support protectionism instead.

They want government intervention to support the economy and protect American jobs. They oppose free trade on the ground that it benefits other countries especially China at the expense of American workers. However, in spite of their support for protectionism, they tend to support other free-market principles like low taxes, small government and balanced budgets. Conservatives are strongest in rural America because the demographic population caters more towards the Republican Party: older, blue-collar, evangelical, and white.

Thus, within each state, there is a division between urban, suburban, exurban, and rural areas. Russell Kirk developed six "canons" of conservatism, which Gerald J.

Russello described as follows:. Kirk said that Christianity and Western Civilization are "unimaginable apart from one another" [] and that "all culture arises out of religion. When religious faith decays, culture must decline, though often seeming to flourish for a space after the religion which has nourished it has sunk into disbelief.

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In later works, Kirk expanded this list into his "Ten Principles of Conservatism" [] which are as follows:. One stream of conservatism exemplified by William Howard Taft extols independent judges as experts in fairness and the final arbiters of the Constitution. In , Theodore Roosevelt broke with most of his lawyer friends and called for popular votes that could overturn unwelcome decisions by state courts.

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  6. Taft denounced his old friend and rallied conservatives to defeat him for the GOP nomination. Taft and the conservative Republicans controlled the Supreme Court until the late s. President Franklin D.


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    Roosevelt , a liberal Democrat, did not attack the Supreme Court directly in , but ignited a firestorm of protest by a proposal to add seven new justices. Conservative Democrats immediately broke with FDR, defeated his proposal, and built up the Conservative coalition. While the liberals did take over the Court through replacements, they lost control of Congress. That is, the Court no longer overthrew liberal laws passed by Congress, but there were very few such laws that passed in — Conservatives' views of the courts are based on their beliefs: maintaining the present state of affairs, conventional and rule-oriented, and disapproval of government power.

    It came under conservative attack for decisions regarding redistricting, desegregation, and the rights of those accused of crimes. This position goes back to Jefferson's vehement attacks on federal judges and to Abraham Lincoln 's attacks on the Dred Scott decision of A more recent variant that emerged in the s is " originalism ", the assertion that the United States Constitution should be interpreted to the maximum extent possible in the light of what it meant when it was adopted.

    Originalism should not be confused with a similar conservative ideology, strict constructionism , which deals with the interpretation of the Constitution as written, but not necessarily within the context of the time when it was adopted. In modern times, the term originalism has been used by Supreme Court justice Antonin Scalia , former federal judge Robert Bork and some other conservative jurists to explain their beliefs.

    Ashcroft U. However, from the left law professor Herman Schwartz argues that Rehnquist's reliance on federalism and state's rights have been a "Fig Leaf for conservatives":. In the past, conservatives have supported conservation efforts, from the protection of the Yosemite Valley , to the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency.

    Conservative think tanks since the s have opposed the concept of man-made global warming ; challenged scientific evidence; publicized what they perceived as beneficial aspects of global warming, and asserted that proposed remedies would do more harm than good. American conservatives have generally supported deregulation of pollution and reduced restrictions on carbon emissions.

    President Donald Trump rolled back over 76 Obama-administration rules regarding the environment. President Trump also announced that the U. The term "socialist" has been used as a "rhetorical weapon" against the Left by conservatives. By the s, the conservative press had discovered that the word 'socialism' "proved to be a successful derogatory epithet rather than a descriptive label for a meaningful political alternative.

    Kennedy and the "blueprint for socialism presented by the Democrats.

    Conservatism in the United States

    Conservatives gained a major new communications medium with the resurgence of talk radio in the late s. William G. Mayer, reports that "conservatives dominate talk radio to an overwhelming, remarkable degree.